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logical reasoning tests

Logical Reasoning Tests

  • 10 tests
  • 100 questions
logical reasoning tests

Logical reasoning tests are a type of psychometric test used to measure your problem-solving skills. They come in various forms, but all have the underlying purpose of assessing your logical aptitude and your ability to draw conclusions from a given set of information.

What is a logical reasoning test?

A logical reasoning test determines your ability to interpret information, and then to apply a systematic process to solve problems and draw relevant conclusions. Typically it’s a timed assessment with a multiple-choice format and does not require prior knowledge. Rather, it relies on general intelligence and as such is akin to a standard IQ test.

That said, logical reasoning is actually an umbrella term for multiple types of assessment, and you may find you’re asked to take any one of the following five test types as part of a job application.

Deductive reasoning

Commonly presented as a series of word problems, deductive reasoning tests require you to apply top-down-logic; that is, you must draw the right conclusion from a set of given premises.

Typically, you’ll be presented with a short paragraph, or stimulus, detailing an argument, scenario or a number of stated facts, and a set of possible answers. Only one of these answers can be true, based on the evidence provided.

You may also be given a conclusive statement and asked to decide if it is true or false, or if there’s insufficient information to conclude either way.

Inductive reasoning

Unlike deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning tests ask you to make general inferences – probable conclusions based on a set of information, rather than unquestionable outcomes.

This is most often done through the use of shapes, patterns, sequences and diagrams.

You’ll need to quickly identify relationships and rules, then apply these to find the most logical answer from the multiple-choice options. This could be identifying the odd one out, filling in the missing part of a pattern, or finding the next part of a sequence.

Diagrammatic reasoning

Similar to inductive reasoning, diagrammatic reasoning tests offer visual representations of a problem and require you to make logical connections to draw a conclusion.

Questions often take the form of a diagram with inputs and outputs, and you’ll be required to select which processes from a list of operators would achieve the documented effect.

You may also be presented with sets of abstract sequences, given a standalone visual, and asked to select which set it belongs to.

Abstract reasoning

Abstract reasoning tests are essentially inductive and/or diagrammatic reasoning tests under another name.

They too require you to find relationships and rules between visual sequences, then apply these to select the correct image from multiple options, be it a missing part or a continuation of the sequence in question.

Critical reasoning

Critical reasoning tests are more akin to deductive reasoning tests, in that you’ll be dealing with word-based scenarios, arguments, evidence and conclusions.

These tests tend to evaluate a range of skills. Argument analysis is common, in which a question is posed, and a yes/no answer given with a supporting statement. You’ll need to decide whether the statement is a strong or weak argument.

Other question types involve scenarios and statements from which you’ll be asked to make assumptions, deductions and inferences based on the evidence provided.

Critical reasoning tests are most commonly used in sectors where evidence-based judgement is an everyday requirement, such as law.

Why do employers use logical reasoning tests?

As with any form of psychometric assessment, employers use logical reasoning tests as a way to filter applicants, most commonly in the pre-interview stages of selection.

Logic forms a fundamental part of day-to-day decision making. Our reasoning capabilities determine how effectively we interpret the world around us, and how we use what we know to be fact to inform our choices. As such, logical reasoning is a vital part of many job functions.

In administering a logical reasoning test, employers are evaluating how well you’re likely to perform tasks like strategy development, risk assessment and forecasting, as well as general problem solving.

Common logical reasoning test publishers

Below are listed five of the most widely used publishers of logical reasoning tests, each of which has its own approach to this type of assessment.

SHL

SHL publishes and administers both inductive and deductive reasoning tests, the lengths of which vary depending on the level of role applied for. Typically though, they last no longer than 25 minutes and follow a standard format.

Kenexa

Kenexa’s logical reasoning test focuses on inductive or abstract reasoning, with candidates required to assess and manipulate shapes and sequences. It also has a deductive reasoning test, which it refers to as verbal reasoning.

Cut-e

Cut-e offers both inductive and deductive reasoning tests, with individual variations of each. The layout of Cut-e’s tests is known to be somewhat different to other publishers, so if you’re taking one be sure to practice specifically for this format.

Saville

As one of the best-known publishers of psychometric and aptitude assessments, Saville’s logical reasoning tests are widely used. They’re offered as either abstract or diagrammatic reasoning and have a time limit of around 20 to 25 minutes.

Talent Q

Logical reasoning tests from Talent Q are adaptive, which means the difficulty rating of a question is related to your performance on the question prior. Do well initially, and they’ll get harder. Struggle, and they’ll become a little easier.

How to prepare for logical reasoning tests

The best way to prepare for a logical reasoning test of any description is to train your brain to think more critically – and that means practice.

Try making puzzles a part of your daily routine or use brain-training apps in your downtime. If you’re preparing for a deductive or critical thinking test, take an analytical approach to reading the daily news. Instead of simply taking things on face value, ask yourself questions based on the evidence provided, and whether or not it’s enough to draw solid conclusions.

And make sure you take plenty of practice tests. This will help you understand how to answer logical reasoning tests, and will make you familiar with many of the common relationships found in abstract sequences, including orientation, shading, rotations and reflections.

If you’re struggling to identify relevant rules, work backwards from the answer. The better you understand where and how certain rules apply, the more picking them out will become second nature.

As you progress with your practice tests, start taking them under exam conditions, including setting yourself a time limit. Pacing is a key skill in logical reasoning tests, as your score will not only indicate how many correct answers you gave, but how long it took you to answer each question.

Lastly, be sure to practice the right type of test. Ask your prospective employer which of the five types of logical reasoning assessment you’ll be sitting, and if possible, which test provider they use. This will allow you to target your preparation to the specific test format you’ll face on assessment day.

Prepare yourself for leading employers

Free example logical reasoning questions

Below you’ll find example questions for the different types of logical reasoning test. Answers to each are given below the set of questions.

For further practice, check out ourfree logical reasoning test questions and answers.

Deductive reasoning test

All footballers are fit and healthy.

All famous sports players are footballers.

Given that the above is true, which of the following is the logical deduction?

  1. All footballers are famous sports people
  2. All famous people are fit and healthy
  3. All famous sports players are fit and healthy
  4. All fit and healthy people are footballers
  5. All football players are men

Inductive reasoning test

inductive reasoning practice question

How many triangles will be in the 6th shape?

  • A) 10
  • B) 12
  • C) 14
  • D) 16

Diagrammatic reasoning test

diagrammatic reasoning practice questions

In the grid, one box is missing. You must work out what rules are being applied in the other boxes in order to work out which of boxes A to F will complete the grid.

Abstract reasoning test

abstract reasoning practice questions

Which of the boxes comes next in the sequence?

Solutions

Deductive reasoning

Using deductive reasoning, the only logical answer is 3. To get to this answer, you need to simplify the given facts. All famous sports players are footballers, and all footballers are fit and healthy.

  1. We can’t deduce that all footballers are famous sports people, as we haven’t got that information.
  2. We can’t deduce that all famous people are fit and healthy, because the fact is about famous sports people.
  3. This is the logical answer.
  4. This information is not given; all footballers are fit and healthy but we can’t logically link that all fit and healthy people are footballers.
  5. This is obviously incorrect, as gender is not mentioned at all in the question.

Inductive reasoning

The number of triangles is increasing by 2 as you move along the sequence. I you continue to add 2 until you reach the 6th shape you reach 14, so the answer is C).

Diagrammatic reasoning

In the question the key rule is that the number of ‘star’ shapes in the central column must always equal the number of double circle shapes.

✲ = ⌾

If there are no star shapes there should be no circle shapes. If there are three star shapes, there should be three circle shapes. Option F is the only one that abides by this rule.

Abstract reasoning

Please note: shapes are not in a set position within this sequence. It is merely the presence of the shapes that is important. 1. There are always two squares in the frame. 2. There are always two circles in the frame. 3. There is always one triangle in the frame. So the answer is D).

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How are logical reasoning tests scored?

Logical reasoning tests are scored comparatively. That is to say, you’ll receive one mark for each correct answer, and your total score will be compared to the average results of other test-takers. Different employers may assess your results in different ways. Some will look only at your raw score against an average benchmark, while others may also consider your pace.

What are logical reasoning tests used for?

No matter the type of logical reasoning test used, you’re being assessed on your problem-solving and critical thinking skills. Employers are trying to determine if you have the required ability to interpret information, identify patterns and relationships, and draw solid conclusions. These are skills used on a daily basis in many job roles, so logical reasoning tests are widely used.

How is logical thinking measured?

Logical reasoning tests give a good indication of your lateral thinking skills by measuring your ability to analyse and interpret information to make evidence-based decisions – be they inferences, assumptions or unquestionable conclusions.

Why is logical reasoning important?

Logical reasoning is important in work-based environments because it is this skill set that allows you to work through many everyday business problems and come to the right resolution. Logical thinkers make decisions based on what they know to be true, rather than gut feeling; set achievable goals based on past performance; and approach complex problems in a systematic manner.

Where can I practice logical reasoning tests?

You can find practice tests for all types of logical reasoning assessments on our website, along with detailed answer explanations and guides. You can also find practice tests online from individual publishers which will help you get to grips with specific formats and time constraints.

Which employers use logical reasoning tests?

Logical reasoning tests are commonly used for managerial-level roles and above in many corporate job sectors, including law, investment banking and consultancy, as well as human resources, customer service and market research. It’s also likely you’ll be required to sit some form of logical reasoning test for acceptance onto a graduate scheme with many larger employers.

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Logical Reasoning Tests Tips

1Read each question carefully

It’s vital you understand exactly what is being asked of you, so be sure to read every question thoroughly. There may well be distractors in the multiple-choice options; picking one of these because you’ve misinterpreted the question is a common error.

2Analyse the stimulus

In deductive or critical reasoning tests, it’s important to fully digest the stimulus before drawing your conclusion. Again, a simple misunderstanding can be the difference between scoring or missing out on a mark, so make sure you’re aware of all the evidence presented to you.

3Work out your answer before looking at the options

When working with abstract sequences or patterns, try to get an idea in your head of what the missing piece or next part of the sequence is likely to be, before you look at the multiple-choice options. This will help you zone in on the right response, rather than get distracted by irrelevant choices.

4Make notes

There may be several relationships in any given sequence, and in diagrammatic reasoning tests you’ll need to be aware of multiple processes. Make notes as you go through to keep track of your thought process. It will help you to work methodically and avoid confusion.

5Pay attention to pacing

You only have a set amount of time to work through all the questions, so be sure to pace yourself. Typically, problems become more complex as the test progresses, so aim to spend less time on questions at the start. Good pacing takes practice. You want to work quickly but not to the detriment of your accuracy.

6Don't panic

Logical reasoning tests can be a little daunting if you’re not used to them but remember, we apply logic everyday without even realising it. Stay calm and remind yourself that the steps you need to take are familiar to you, it’s just that the problem you’re solving is presented in an unfamiliar way.

Logical Reasoning Video Tutorials

Unfolded Shapes

1 min

Similar Shapes

1 min

Rotated Views

1 min

Mirror Images

2 mins

Input Type

2 mins

Sequencing

2 mins

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