Analogy Questions are asking you to work out relationships between different words.
You will be given two words that are connected in a specific way. You will also be given a third word, and your job is to find the fourth word that partners it. The third and fourth words should have the same relationship as the first two words.
Let’s look at an example:
Ornithologist is to Bird as Archaeologist it to …?
A) Islands B) Herpetology C) Archeology D) Dinosaur
We start by understanding the relationship between the first two words. Ornithology is the study of birds, so there we have our relationship - one is a type of research and one is the topic of study.
If you don’t know what the topic of Palaeontology is, make an educated guess - if we look at the spelling of Ornithology (which we know is the research subject) we can see it is very similar to Palaeontology - meaning Palaeontology is probably a research subject too.
The only two topics in the list are Islands and Dinosaurs, by now you can probably work out that the answer is dinosaurs.